Expectations And Obligations


Regional diversification notwithstanding, the mortgage backed securities turned out to be highly correlated. Credit default swaps provided insurance to investors against the possibility of losses in the value of tranches from default in exchange for premium-like payments, making CDOs appear “to be virtually risk-free” to investors. Synthetics “referenced” cash CDOs, replacing interest payments from MBS tranches with premium-like payments from credit default swaps.

If a contract contains an obligation that fits one of these types, the terms should be evaluated to determine whether the obligation is to stand ready or to provide the underlying good or service. If a stand-ready obligation exists and is distinct, the company must use judgment to determine when to recognize revenue based on when the customer benefits from the transferred good or service and the nature of the company’s efforts to provide the good or service. If a company determines that a contract contains a stand-ready obligation as opposed to a promise to deliver a good or service, and that stand-ready obligation represents a distinct performance obligation, revenue should be recognized over time as the stand-ready obligation is satisfied. In its 2020 Q&A document, the FASB indicated that companies should not default to a straight-line revenue attribution method if such a pattern of recognition would not depict the entity’s performance of satisfying the performance obligation. For example, a company may consider the timing of transfer of the underlying goods or services or whether the company’s efforts (i.e., costs) are expended evenly throughout the period covered by the stand-ready obligation.

The FASB decided that such promises do not constitute performance obligations and instead should be factored into the transaction price as variable consideration. A company’s promise to stand ready to repurchase an asset is also not a performance obligation.

New York Consolidated Laws, General Obligations Law

Type D. The entity is obligated to make a good or service continually available. Health club chains are a common example of this type of stand-ready obligation. Type C. The customer has control over the delivery of the goods or services. An extended warranty requiring the entity to repair the product for its customer on an as-needed basis would be an example of this type. It is not necessary for a statutory demand to be served before presenting a winding-up petition to the Court , however as discussed above it will provide useful leverage in attempting to get a debt paid before a winding petition is needed. obtain a charging order, whereby a charge is imposed over a debtor’s beneficial interest in certain qualifying assets, most commonly shares. obtain a writ of control, whereby a bailiff can take control of goods belonging to a debtor in order that those goods may be sold to satisfy the judgment debt.

There are various views about whether or not a political obligation is a moral obligation. John Rawls argues that people do have political obligations because of the principle of fairness. Humanity benefits from the joint effort of the government so in fairness, they should be active and supportive members of this effort. There are people however, such as Robert Nozick, who argue that enjoyment of a community effort does not mean obligation to that effort. The ACLU-WA supports further reforms of our LFO system, including passage of HB 1390 by the state legislature.

Written Obligations

Like other private label securities backed by assets, a CDO can be thought of as a promise to pay investors in a prescribed sequence, based on the cash flow the CDO collects from the pool of bonds or other assets it owns. Distinctively, CDO credit risk is typically assessed based on a probability of default derived from ratings on those bonds or assets. The FASB 2020 Q&A document provides examples of accounting for stand-ready bookkeeping. In one of these examples, a company contracts to clear snow off an airport’s runways for a year.


They set out the different fees, taxes and subscriptions payable in respect of international calendar races. Two notable exceptions to this are Virtus Partners and Wilmington Trust Conduit Services, a subsidiary of Wilmington Obligations Trust, which offer collateral administration services, but are not trustee banks. In the 2015 biographical film The Big Short, CDOs of mortgage-backed securities are described metaphorically as “dog shit wrapped in cat shit”.

Every society has their own way of governing, they expect their citizens to behave in a particular manner. Not only do the citizens have to oblige to the societal norms, they want to, in order to assimilate to society. Philosophers on the other hand, argue that rational beings have moral duties, they make a choice to either fulfill these moral duties or disregard them. Obligations require an action being done and duty is the carrying out of this action. Sociologists believe that an obligation is an objective force, philosophers however, believe obligations are moral imperatives. An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. People who are under obligations may choose to freely act under obligations.

In recent years, more and more attention is being paid to issues of global justice, and, inevitably, discussion has turned to the conflict between our duties to our compatriots and our duties to others around the globe, in particular, the global poor. In this literature, the debate is described as being between those who accept associationism and those who accept cosmopolitanism. The former accept that we have associative duties – “duties we owe to people with whom we are associated in some way,” including compatriots – while the latter “regard people’s local allegiance as a parochial obstacle that stands in the way of achieving global distributive justice” . Seglow aims to defend the former, associationist position, while others, such as Caney, defend the latter . Yet others try to extend the notion of association in such a way that the global economy, for example, grounds associational duties . On the other side of the debate is the voluntarist account of parental https://wave-accounting.net/, according to which one comes to have parental obligations only by voluntarily accepting such obligations . Of course, any such view owes us an account of what would count as voluntary assumption of parental obligations.

If an obligation is not met, the legal system often provides recourse for the injured party. Think about how you will meet your financial obligations and where you will live. something by which a person is bound or obliged to do certain things, and which arises out of a sense of duty or results from custom, law, etc. Social obligations refer to the things we as individuals accept because it is collectively accepted. When people agree to a promise or an agreement, they are collectively consenting to the terms of that agreement or promise. In response, the ACLU across the country has been exposing and challenging these modern-day debtors’ prisons, urging governments and courts to pursue more rational and equitable approaches to criminal justice debt.

Special Considerations

Provide accessible information about assistive technology to persons with disabilities. The brochure “What Do I Need to Know if I Own or Operate Contaminated Property” and the EGLE-RRD Due Care Guide provide a general discussion of the purpose and obligations. The obligations can be found in Part 213, Section 21304c, Part 201, Section 20107aand Part 10 of thePart 201 Administrative Rules. Your obligations may include the need complete and submit Notice of Migration and the Notice of Abandoned Containers. Take reasonable precautions against the foreseeable acts of third parties, such as contractors, utility workers, etc.


If the Court is not satisfied the debt exists, and the petition is dismissed, you would be required to pay a level of the counterparty’s costs. The advantage of winding up proceedings, either the threat or commencement of it, is that it can assist in the debt being recovered promptly. If your counterparty does not pay the debt, the basic procedure is also relatively quick . If the counterparty is wound-up, a liquidator will take control of the company’s assets and, if available, will seek to distribute to its creditors . A further benefit of a statutory demand is it does not need to involve the courts from the outset and is therefore a relatively quick and inexpensive process and one which will get the debtor’s attention due to the risk of winding-up proceedings. However, if the intention is to keep an ongoing relationship with the counterparty, it can be seen as an aggressive step and it may still lead to court proceedings. Therefore, as stated above, initial steps should attempt to involve negotiation.

In particular, the investment depends on the assumptions and methods used to define the risk and return of the tranches. CDOs, like all asset-backed securities, enable the originators of the underlying assets to pass credit risk to another institution or to individual investors. The SPE issues bonds to investors in exchange for cash, which are used to purchase the portfolio of underlying assets. Like other ABS private label securities, the bonds are not uniform but issued in layers called tranches, each with different risk characteristics.

Taxes, too, are a form of obligation and failing to meet them results in large fines or imprisonment. This state’s taxpayers can’t perpetually meet the rising retirement obligations that those governments created for themselves. More examples Beach operators do not have a legal obligation to provide against injury or drowning. I don’t have time to do his work for him – I have too many obligations as it is. We have taken action to promote the health, safety, rights, and liberties of all Washingtonians.

The Grounds Of Special Obligations

But then, of course, whatever derivative reason an agent has to care for her intimates is determined by the nature of her contingent, empirical circumstances. If I find myself causally and epistemically positioned to do greater good by ignoring my intimates and serving the needs of strangers, then that is what I ought to do, according to the consequentialist. In fact, if I have the choice of providingx units how to hire an accountant of good to my friend or x+1 units of good to a complete stranger, then, barring any further long-run negative effects on my character, my friendship, or the institution of friendship, I ought to provide the x+1 units of good to the stranger. Commonsense morality, however, as we have seen, regards the fact of my standing in the friendship relation to someone as morally significant in and of itself.

One potential response is to insist that upon acquiring special cash basis, a moral agent does not owe less to other persons, but, rather, simply owes more to her intimates. The more such relationships that I stand in, the more obligations I acquire. Unless my duty of benevolence is a maximizing duty, there is no reason to suppose that I cannot balance that duty with my special obligations. Of course, even if my obligations to ‘outsiders’ have not decreased, it is still true that ‘insiders’ will be benefitted more than ‘outsiders,’ and that might still be worrisome. However, given that ‘insiders’ also have to bear the cost of benefitting other ‘insiders,’ the relative balance of costs and benefits might remain the same for insiders and outsiders. But, the defender of special obligations might say, as long as I benefit everyone to the extent to which I owe them benefits, why is the relative balance of costs and benefits relevant? Only on the most radical of egalitarian views is the equalizing of that balance considered an end in itself of morality.

These fees, together with underwriting fees, administration—approx 1.5 – 2% —by virtue of capital structure are provided by the equity investment, by virtue of reduced cash flow. Even by the issuance date, the asset manager often will not have completed the construction of the CDO’s portfolio. A “ramp-up” period following issuance during which the remaining assets are purchased can extend for several months after the CDO is issued. For this reason, some senior CDO notes are structured as delayed drawdown notes, allowing the asset manager to draw down cash from investors as collateral purchases are made. When a transaction is fully ramped, its initial portfolio of credits has been selected by the asset manager. In theory, the asset manager should add value in the manner outlined below, although in practice, this did not occur during the credit bubble of the mid-2000s .

  • Some counties have offered people the option of performing physical labor on a work crew in order to satisfy their debts.
  • An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral.
  • Type A. The entity has control over when the goods or services are delivered but needs to develop those goods or services further.
  • At the more senior levels of debt, investors are able to obtain better yields than those that are available on more traditional securities (e.g., corporate bonds) of a similar rating.

The county clerk may access the records of the employment security department for the purposes of verifying employment or income, seeking any assignment of wages, or performing other duties necessary to the collection of an offender’s legal financial obligations. The department shall arrange for the collection of unpaid legal financial obligations during any period of supervision in the community through the county clerk. The department shall either collect unpaid legal financial obligations or arrange for collections through another entity if the clerk does not assume responsibility or is unable to continue to assume responsibility for collection pursuant to subsection of this section. After the judgment and sentence or payment order is entered, the department is authorized, for any period of supervision, to collect the legal financial obligation from the offender.

AEF Program Fellows must also comply with all legal and ethical requirements subject to their individual appointments. An example of ethics guidelines for DOE sponsored Fellows can be viewed here. Must, in managing their responsibilities throughout the Fellowship, give priority to the duties assigned to them by their host office. Fellows are eligible to participate in the ORISE health insurance plan if they do not have other health insurance coverage. Meet the Terms and Conditions spelled out in the offer letter of appointment provided by the AEF Program, including requirements for ethical conduct, and financial disclosure and conflict-of-interest. The UCI Financial Obligations, expressed in Euros unless otherwise stated, are fixed on an annual basis by the UCI Management Committee.

Although such a contract may span an entire year, the airport receives most of the benefits during the winter months when snow is more likely and the company is expected to remove it. For these reasons, the company would conclude that recognizing significantly more revenue during the winter months is appropriate.